Prostate Cancer is the carcinoma affecting the prostate. It is the development of cancer in the prostate Gland, which is an important gland in the male reproductive system. Here you can read about the most common Prostate Cancer Signs and Symptoms. Know what are the Risk Factors and Causes of prostate cancer in men. Most of them ask us How to Diagnose Prostate Cancer ? and what are the possible Complications of prostate cancer in men includes fertility issues. The article also comprises Treatment of Prostate Cancer.
Prostate Cancer Signs and Symptoms
Most patients with Prostate Cancer will have no symptoms for a long period. Others have signs and symptoms similar to other urinary tract or kidney problems. This includes frequent urination, difficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, dysuria (painful urination), nocturia (increased urination at night), hematuria (blood in the urine) etc.
Risk Factors and Causes
What causes exactly, Prostate Cancer is still unknown. Various studies proves that factors like obesity, age and family history are high risk factors. Prostate cancer is very uncommon in men younger than 45. It becomes more common with advancing age. Having many lifetime sexual partners or starting sexual activity early in life also increases the risk of prostate cancer.
Genetic background of a person may contribute to prostate cancer risk and it is suggested by associations with race, family, and specific gene variants. Those consume large amount of Red meat and processed meat have a higher risk for prostate cancer. Evidence supports little role for dietary fruits and vegetables in prostate cancer occurrence.
Higher meat consumption has been associated with a higher risk in some studies. Another risk increasing factor is Lower blood levels of vitamin D. Use of the cholesterol-lowering drugs is known as the statins may also decrease prostate cancer risk and this is found in many hypertensive patients.
How to Diagnose Prostate Cancer ?
Detection of PSA (prostate-specific antigen) is a helpful marker in prostate cancer. The epithelial cells in the prostate gland produce a protein called PSA (prostate-specific antigen). This helps in keeping the semen in its liquid state. Some of the PSA escapes into the bloodstream and this can be measured by checking blood PSA Levels. If the levels of PSA are high, it might be an indication of either prostate cancer or some kind of prostate condition.
Biopsy is the only test that can fully confirm the diagnosis of prostate cancer; This includes removal of small pieces of the prostate for microscopic examination. This is a painful procedure and can’t be used an early diagnostic option. Less invasive testing can be conducted prior to biopsy.
Digital rectal examination (DRE) is another simple test to detect prostate abnormalities. You may also go for a Cystoscopy which shows the urinary tract from inside the bladder, using a thin, flexible camera tube inserted down the urethra, to detect any cancer growth. Transrectal ultrasonography can be done and this offers a picture of the prostate using sound waves from a probe in the rectum.
Metastasis is the most commonly found complication of Prostate cancer. The cancer can easily spread to other parts of the body through the bloodstream or the lymphatic system. It may reach other organs or bones(pain and fractures will be result). Sometimes the cancer spreads to the ureters, there is a risk of serious kidney problems. When prostate cancer has spread to other parts of the body, it can no longer be cured, but may possibly be controlled.
Incontinence most of the time caused by prostate cancer itself, or related treatments can cause urinary incontinence. Erectile dysfunction is also found in many patients, either caused by the prostate cancer itself or caused by prostate cancer treatment. Those men have inability to achieve a penile erection, or maintain one. Metabolic factors like high blood pressure, raised blood sugar levels, high blood lipid levels, and a high BMI (body mass index) are risk factors for prostate cancer.
Treatment of Prostate Cancer
Your doctor might suggest Watchful waiting or active surveillance to see if your tumor. Most prostate cancer grows slowly and With active surveillance, you’ll also get regular tests to detect cancer growth. Surgery is another problem which is the surgical removing all or part of the prostate. This will be done depends on the size of the tumor and where it is. Radiation uses high-energy waves or particles to kill cancer cells and shrink tumors.
After this person will have low sperm count. Those who have not completed family should go for sperm banking before this. Hormone therapy lowers levels of those hormones or stops the cells from using them. Chemotherapy using drugs which are capable of attacking and killing cancer cells and shrinking tumors. Biologic therapy best work with your immune system to fight the disease. This is also used to treat advanced prostate cancer. Bisphosphonate therapy reaches your bones, these drugs can ease pain and prevent fractures.