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Polyps of Rectum and Colon are Really Dangerous ?

Colorectal polyps

Many of then ask us whether the Polyps of Rectum and Colon are Really Dangerous ? A colorectal polyp is a polyp – fleshy growth which occurring on the lining of the colon or rectum. Once it left Untreated these colorectal polyps can develop into colorectal cancer and this could be dangerous. 

It is not necessary that Polyps of Rectum and Colon may malignant. Sometimes, it will be benign without health risk. In some cases, the polyp will arise as a consequence of inflammatory bowel disease. Many Polyps of Rectum and Colon are benign. Some are pre-malignant and other are malignant. 

Polyps of Rectum and Colon classified into:-

  • Hyperplastic
  • Neoplastic (adenomatous & malignant)
  • Hamartomatous
  • Inflammatory

Screening and diagnosis of Colorectal polyps

Early Screening and diagnosis of Colorectal polyps will reduce the risk and complications. Most popular methods used for this includes faecal occult blood test, flexible sigmoidoscopy, colonoscopy, virtual colonoscopy, digital rectal examination, barium enema or a pill camera. 

Colorectal polyps

When the Polyp Becomes a Health problem?

Colorectal polyps becomes a health concern, when the Malignant potential is associated with degree of dysplasia and Type of polyp (e.g. villous adenoma). In case of Tubular Adenoma there is 5% risk of cancer and for Tubulovillous adenoma you have 20% risk of cancer. Villous adenoma caries 40% risk of cancer. 

Size of polyp is also a health concern. This become a problem when the polyp measures <1 cm =<1% risk of cancer. If the polyp is 1 cm=10% risk of cancer and if it is 2 cm=15% risk of cancer for the patient. Structure of a Polyp is either pedunculated (attached to the intestinal wall by a stalk) or sessile (grow directly from the wall). 

Treatment

Colorectal polyps  are easy to manage if it is benign and not large in size. It can be removed simple, during a colonoscopy or sigmoidoscopy using a wire loop that cuts the stalk of the polyp. It finally cauterises to prevent bleeding. Endoscopic mucosal resection (EMR) is another famous option for removing adenomas. 

This is done by  injection of fluid underneath the lesion to lift it and thus facilitate surgical excision. Most of the time techniques may be employed as an alternative to a much-more-invasive colectomy. 

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